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The Politics of the Post-Yugoslav Wars. Explanations.


  • Garde, Paul. Vie et Mort de la Yougoslavie. [Paris: Fayard, 1992, 1994].
    • Garde, born 1926, is a retired professor of Slavic linguistics at the University of Provence. He first visited Yugoslavia in 1951 as a university student with a backpack and returned many times thereafter. His account is revelatory in the breadth of social and cultural circumstances aptly cited.

  • Denitch, Bogdan. Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994].
    • Denitch is Professor of Sociology at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

  • Glenny, Misha. The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War. [London: Penguin, 1992].
    • Glenny is Central European correspondent of the BBC World Service.

  • Singleton, Fred. A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985].
    • Singleton, now deceased, was chairman of the Postgraduate School of Yugoslav Studies at Bradford University from its founding in 1971 until his retirement in 1981.

  • Hérodote. Revue de géographie et de géopolitique. N° 67. 4º trimestre 1992. La Question Serbe.
    • A dozen articles, listed below, including a sixty-page discussion of population distribution by ethnicity and social characteristics, with many maps, by Xavier Bougarel.

  • Tomasevich, Jozo. The Chetniks. [Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1975].
    • A detailed account of organized Serb nationalism in the ongoing partisan war of Yugoslavia in World War II. This work reports June and December 1941 documents that set out the scheme for Greater Serbia, documents which read like a roadmap for Serb violence and 'ethnic cleansing' in 1991-95.
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    A Major New Book

    This newly-published volume is

  • Woodward, Susan. Balkan tragedy : chaos and dissolution after the Cold War. [Washington: Brookings, 1995].
  • I heard Susan Woodward discuss the ongoing Yugoslav impasse in July 1994. She had traveled from Zagreb to Italy in order to talk to us. In Zagreb she was serving as the head of a ten-member group of specialist advisors to Akashi Yasushi, the UN's chief in former Yugoslavia, which she had recruited at his request. Now a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, Susan Woodward melds sophisticated political analysis to an unmatched familiarity with the politics of former Yugoslavia and the resultant wars. Some biographic data and a list of her recent publications is available on the Brookings web site.

    . . . And a Sample of Her Judgment

    Her views on the efficacy of economic sanctions are set out concisely in

  • Woodward, Susan. "Yugoslavia: divide and fail," in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v 49 n 9, November 1993, p. 24ff.
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    On This Topic

    This topic proposes a serious introduction to the wars in former Yugoslavia. Some of the materials may be difficult to acquire. To my knowledge, for example, the Tomasevich volume The Chetniks has not been reprinted since its original publication in 1975.

    The Paul Garde book remains readily available in Paris bookstores. For a source in the United States, see the Vendor section below.


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    Reference Works, Graphics, & Links


    Other Related Works, Graphics, & Links

    Two key documents are cited by Tomasevich:
  • Moljevic, Stevan. "Homogeneous Serbia." June 1941.

  • Mihailovic, Dragoljub-Draza. [Order to commanders]. 20 December 1941.

  • "Greater Serbia" remained an objective through WWI, and was then revived by the Chetniks in 1941.

    Dr. Stevan Moljevic, who was to join the Chetnik National Committee's Executive Council in two months' time, wrote a memorandum in June 1941 titled "Homogeneous Serbia." Moljevic sets out what could as well have been the Serbian program of 1990-92: a "homogeneous Serbia which has to include the entire ethnic area populated by Serbs," "transfers and exchanges of populations, especially of Croats from the Serbian and of Serbs from the Croatian areas," all of this to make impossible

    "a repetition of the terrible crimes . . . especially during this war, in the entire area in which the Serbs and Croats live intermixed, and where the Croats and Moslems have undertaken in a calculated way the extermination of the Serbs." [Note 1]
    Just six months later the Chetnik leader, Dragoljub-Draza Mihailovic, perhaps influenced by the Moljevic program, directed commanders to achieve
    . . . (2) the creation of a Great Yugoslavia and within it a Great Serbia which is to be ethnically pure and is to include Serbia [meaning also Macedonia], Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Srijem, the Banat, and Backa; . . . (4) the cleansing of the state territory of all national minorities and a-national elements, (5) the creation of contiguous frontiers between Serbia and Montenegro, as well as between Serbia and Slovenia by cleansing [removing?] the moslem population from Sandjak and the Moslem and Croat populations from Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Note 2]


    [Note 1]: Tomasevich, p. 167, quoting Moljevic.
    [Note 2]: Tomasevich, p. 170, citing Dokumenti o izdajstvu Draze Mihailovica, I, 12. The notation "cleansing [removing?]" and the bracketed reference to Macedonia are Tomasevich's.


    Articles in Hérodote No. 67

  • Lacoste, Yves. "Éditorial: la question serbe et la question allemande." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, 3-48.

  • Roux, Michel. "A propos de la «purification ethnique» en Bosnie-Herzégovine." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 49-60.

  • Yerasimos, Stèphane. "Quelle politique pour les Balkans?" Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 61-63.

  • Balkan Research Center. "Note aux parlementaires britanniques sur la Bosnie-Herzégovne." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 64-69.

  • Batakovic, Dusan T. "Le génocide dans l'État indépendant croate (1941-1945)." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 77-80.

  • Bojovic, Bosko I. "Deux représentations géopolitiques." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 81-83.

  • Bougarel, Xavier. "Anatomie d'une poudrière." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 84-147.

  • Bojovic, Bosko I. "Bosnie-Herzégovine: pour une solution équitable, pour un arrêt des hostilités." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 148-150.

  • Copeaux, Étienne and Stéphane Yerasimos. La Bosnie vue de Bosphore." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 151-159.

  • Deslondes, Olivier. "La question de Macédoine." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 160-166.

  • Lory, Bernard [interview]. "La Macédoine en quête de reconnaissance." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 166-170.

  • Roux, Michel. "Albanie, septembre 1992. Impressions de voyage et interrogations." Hérodote, N° 657, octobre-décembre 1992, pp. 171-178.
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    Drafter's Notes

    The wars in former Yugoslavia set the pragmatic and moral question: what to do? What aims compel? What means could work? What will domestic opinion support? How can choice among the alternative evils be made in a way which best honors all of those affected by the choice?


    [Note 1]: George Soros, "Firm Action Could Still Reverse the Bosnia Outcome," International Herald Tribune, 17 July 1995, reprinted from the Washington Post.
    [Note 2]: William Pfaff, "As of Now, Serbia Wins, Europe Loses and the Future is Dark," International Herald Tribune, 17 July 1995, © Los Angeles Times Syndicate.




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  • The Brookings Institution published Susan Woodward's Balkan Tragedy. They have book order information on line.

  • I have no experience with them, but a Los Angeles bookstore claims to be the largest bookstore in the United States dedicated to works in French:

  • La Cité French Books.


    Drafter/Donor and Steward

    This Topic has been drafted by Bruce D. Larkin, who is also the Steward of this Topic, and can be reached by email at:

    Last revised 95.11.01.


    Acknowledgments and Revision History

    95.11.01 95.07.18 Topic initiated.


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    Template set issued 95.11.01. We recommend updating all templates issued prior to 95.11.0. This template last revised: 96.12.26.