A LearnWorld Text

Race to Oblivion

A Participant's View of the Arms Race

Herbert F. York

INDEX


Information

CONTENTS 5

CONTENTS
Table of Contents57Missile-Gap Mania125
INTRODUCTION78The McNamara Era147
Prologue: Eisenhower's Other Warning9PART TWO: UNBALANCING THE BALANCE OF TERROR171
1The Arms Race and I159MIRV: The Multiple Menace173
PART ONE: TOWARD A BALANCE OF TERROR10The Defense Delusion188
2The Race Begins: Nuclear Weapons and Overkill2711Other Lessons from the ABM Debate213
3The Bomber Bonanza4912The Ultimate Absurdity228
4The Elusive Nuclear Airplane60A Glossary of Acroyms241
5Rockets and Missiles75Index245
6Sputnik106

INDEX 245

INDEX

A-1, 153, 154, 241
A-2, 153, 154, 241
A-3, 153, 154, 177, 241
Abelson, Philip H., 30
ABM, 120, 177, 178-80,196-223, 225-26, 241

  • arms race implications of, 188, 210-12
  • decisions on deployment of, 23, 185, 218-23, 232
  • Nike-Zeus, see Nike-Zeus missile
  • 1969 debate on, 58, 153, 154, 174
  • physicists' vote against, 10
  • protection of U.S. deterrent
  • rejection of proposal to deploy, 21
  • Safeguard, 23, 183, 196, 197, 202, 213-15, 219, 226
  • safeguard of Minuteman by, 203-204
  • Senate vote on, 198
  • Sentinel, 195-96, 202
  • Soviet, 46, 176, 179-80, 201
  • workability of, 204-10, 215-18
    A-bombs, 11, 40, 44, 47, 157, 231
  • H-bomb compared with, 35-36
  • Soviet, 12, 16, 32, 34, 36
    Advanced manned strategic aircraft, see AMSA
    Advanced Research Projects Agency, see ARPA
    AEC, 112, 122, 241
  • Division of Outer Space Development, 121
  • H-bomb development and, 37-38, 222
  • nuclear airplane and, 61-62, 64-67, 236
  • underground test program of, 45
    Aerospace Corporation, 22, 88
    Aerospace Plane, 130, 131
    Agena stage, 105
    Aircraft, see Bobers; Nuclear airplane; and specific types of aircraft
    Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion, see ANP


    Air Force, U.S., 117, 142, 152, 236

  • advisers on weapons to, 18, 85

    INDEX 246


    Air Force, U.S., continued

  • establishment of WDD by, 86
  • GSETD assignments by, 87, 88
  • missile and rocket programs under, 18, 20, 52, 81, 94, 95, 97, 101, 126, 208
  • nuclear-airplane involvement by, 61, 63, 65-67, 81, 82
  • satellite program of, 104, 105, 127, 128, 135
  • space programs of, 126, 130, 138
    Air Research and Development Command of the U.S. Air Force, see ARDC
    Alsos (Goudsmit), 31
    American Physical Society, 10, 46
    AMSA, 241


    ANP, 51, 53, 131, 155, 223, 241

  • development program of, 64, 66-67, 70, 71
  • U.S. reaction to possibility of Russian, 69-74
    Anti-ballistic-missile, see ABM
    Apollo program, 30, 81, 132, I S I
    ARDC, 86, 127, 241
    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, U.S., 22
    Arms race, 15, 18, 103
  • decline in national security due to, 228-30, 233
  • futility of, 21-22
  • individual reasons for promoting, 234-37
  • nuclear disarmament, 239
  • role of Manhattan project in, 29-32
  • U.S. actions stimulating, 230-31, 237-38
  • U.S.S.R's role in, 228-30
    Army, U.S., 85, 137
  • efforts for space programs, 142
  • joint committee with Navy, 100, 101
  • missile and rocket programs of, 82, 98, 138, 139, 140-41, 193, 214
  • satellite program of, 105
  • Von Braun group and, 20, 21
    Army Ballistic Missile Agency, 137
    Army Ordnance and Missile Command, 138
    ARPA, 21, 127, 143, 193, 241
  • establishment of, 20, 115, 120, 144
  • first assignments of, 117-18
  • military space program responsibilities of, 136-39
  • projects with Air Force and, 128, 135
    Atlas-Agena satellite launcher, 126, 162
    Atlas missile, 54, 55, 95, 103, 111, 187
  • accuracy requirement of, 181
  • basic design of, 92-93, 96
  • development of, 86-88
  • early version of, 82
  • launching of capsule' by, 132, 151
  • orbiting of, 135
  • purpose of, 84, 104
  • range of, 94
  • rocket engines powering, 81
  • storage of, 149-50, 152
  • Titan compared with, 102
  • Titan's replacement of, 96-97
  • warhead of, 89-90
    Atomic bombs, 16, 30
  • effects of. 27-28

    INDEX 247


    Atomic Energy Commission,

  • U.S., see AEC
    Atomic Energy Matters, Special
  • Assistant for, 38
    Aviation Week, 71
    B-17, 49
    B-24, 49
    B-29, 49
    B-36, 49
    B-47, 50, 51
    B-52, 45, 50, 53
  • development of, 51
    B-58, 50, 51
    B-70, 51-52, 60, 131, 155, 158, 235, 236
  • development program for, 53-58
  • termination of, 59
    Bacher, Robert, 66, 67, 114
    Ballistic-missile development program, 53
    Ballistic-missile early-warning system, see BMEWS
    Bambi, 131, 143
    Beckler, David Z., 149
    Bell, David, 57
    Bethe, Hans, 198, 199, 207
    Betts, Brigadier General Austin R., 148, 196
    Biehl, Arthur T., 39, 67
    BMEWS, 120, 187, 241
    Bohr, Niels, 29
    Bomarc missile, 188, 190
    Bombers, 49-59, 169, 202, 203, 231
    Bradbury, Norris E., 32
    Bradner, Hugh, 17
    Brennan, Donald, 13, 198, 220, 221
    Brown, Harold, 17, 22, 23, 39, 119. 148. 165,. 173, 194
    Brucker, Wilber M.' 101, 138, 140, 141, 142
    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 160
    Bundy, McGeorge, 149, 168
    California Institute of Technology, 114, 137
    California, University of (Berkeley), 17
    California, University of, Radiation Laboratory, 15, 17, 30
    Canterbury, General William, 65
    Centaur, 127, 136
    CEP, 88, 174, 175, 181, 199, 241
    Charyk, Dr. Joseph V., 147
    Chayes, Abram, 198, 206
    Chemical bombs, atomic bomb, compared with, 33-34
    Chicago, University of, Metallurgical Laboratory, 30
    China
  • missile threat by, 195, 206
  • See also Sino-Soviet bloc
    Chrysler Corporation, 140
    Churchill, Winston, 29
    CIA, 115
    Circular error probable, sec CEP
    Clark, Rear Admiral John, 20, 117
    Claw warhead, 153, 177
    Clifford, Clark, 196, 203
    Cohn, Roy M., 142
    Columbia University, 30
    Compton, Arthur H., 30
    Congressional Aviation Policy Board, 62
    Convair Corporation, 68, 82, 93
    Corporal missile, 82
    Countdown for Decision ( Medaris), 105, l 42

    INDEX 248


    DDRE, 194, 241

  • creation of, 10, 120, 144
  • Defense Department and, 21, 23, 138
  • responsibilities of, 20-21, 67, 118-19, 140
  • space program and, 138-39
    Defender program, 193, 194
    Defense, Department of, 142, 201 B-70
  • budgeting by, 56
  • creation of ARPA by, 20, 118
  • DDRE and, 21, 23, 138
  • establisment [sic] of, 125
  • nuclear airplane and, 61, 63-65
  • reaction to Sputnik by, 112, 115, 116, 118, 126
  • thermonuclear weapons- programs and, 38
    Defense, Secretary of, 13, 119, 139
  • advisers on weapons to, 18, 21, 23, 85
  • Office of, 116, 117
    Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, 10, 20, 118, 120, 141, 148
    Defensive programs, 188-212
  • active and passive, 223
  • air, 188-92
  • offensive weapons and, 192-93, 194, 216
    DEW line, 188, 242
    Director of Defense Research and Engineering, see DDRE
    Disarmament, nuclear, 239
    Discoverer satellites, 127, 135
    Distant early-warning line
  • see DEW Line
    Doolittle, General James H., 114, 115
    Dornberger, General Walter, 77,129
    Draper, Stark, 54, 86, 89
    Dryden, Hugh L., 115, 139
    DuBridge, Lee, 15, 149
    Dyna-Soar, 129-30, 131, 235
    Dyson, Freeman, 158, 159, 160, 198
    Einstein, Albert, 29, 238
  • letter to Roosevelt by, 31
    Eisenhower, Dwight D., 18, 19, 124
  • ANP program and, 66, 72-73
  • B-70 and, 55, 56
  • farewell address of, 9-14
  • reaction to Sputnik by, 113
    Eniwetok, Operation Greenhouse at, 17, 39
    Explorer 1, 105, 108
    F-108, 158, 242
    Fairchild Engine and Aircraft Company, 61
    Fallout, radioactive, 43-44, 46
    Fermi, Enrico, 29, 30
    Fields, General Kenneth El., 122
    Fink, Dr. Daniel, 173, 198
    Fisk, James B., 114
    Fission weapons, see A-bombs
    FOBS, 143, 201, 231, 242
    Foreign Affairs, 158, 168
    Foster, John S., Jr., 17, 22, 39, 173, 174, 194, 196
    Fractional orbital bombardment system, see FOBS
    Froman, Darol, 86
    Fubini, Eugene, 119
    Fusion weapons, see H-bombs
    Gagarin, Yuri, I 11
    Gaither Panel, 114
    GALCIT, 78
    Gardner, Trevor, 18, 84, 86

    INDEX 249


    Garwin, Richard, 207 House of Representatives, 112,
    Gates, Thomas S., 21, 69, 119, 119, 139, 140, 141, 152, 154, 155
    Gemini capsules, 151
    General Dynamics/Astronautics, 63, 93, 136
    General Electric Company, 63, 65, 68, 74, 93, 117, 235
    General systems engineering and technical direction, see GSETD
    Gilpatric, Roswell, 69
    Gise, Lawrence, 117
    Glenn, John, 111
    Glennan, T. Keith, 137, 138, 139
    Goddard, Robert H., 78
    Goldwater, Barry, 56, 57
    Gore, Albert, 196, 200
    Goudsmit, Samuel, 31
    Government Operations Committees, 112
    Groves, General Leslie, 30
    GSETD, 18, 87, 88, 242



    Hahn, Otto, 29
    H-bombs, 11, 35, 47, 89, 157, 222, 231

  • A-bomb compared with, 35-36
  • development of, 16-17, 39-41, 44-45
  • Oppenheimer's opposition to, 36-39
    Herzfeld, Charles, 198
    Hiroshima, Japan, 16, 27, 28, 30, 42, 47
    Hitler, Adolf, 29
    Hoffman, Fred, 183
    Hornig, Donald F., 194, 197, 213
    House Armed Services Committee, 55, 57, 146, 156, 236
    House of Representatives, 112, 119
    House Science and Astronautics Committee, 119
    Hudson Institute, 220
    Hydrogen bombs, see H-bombs


    ICBM, 90, 139, 193, 203, 209, 211, 242

  • development of, 88, 97, 181
  • launching of, 186-87
  • number of, 166, 200, 201
  • OBS compared with, 143
  • priority of, 53
  • protection of land- based, 183, 202
  • reentry nose cone of, 93 Soviet, 106, 109-11, 127, 147, 231
  • technological importance of, 157
  • See also Atlas missile; Minuteman missile; SS-9; SS-11; Titan missile
    IGY, 99, 104, 105, 110, 242
    Inertial-guidance system, 77, 81, 86, 92, 93, 152, 154
    Institute for Defense Analyses. 23
    Intercontinental ballistic missile, see ICBM
    Intermediate-range ballistic missile, see IRBM
    International Geophysical Year, see IGY
    IRBM, 54, 95, 101, 140, 201, 231, 242
    Isotopes hydrogen, 17
  • separation of uranium, I15, 29. 30, 41
  • U 235. 27, 30, 32

    INDEX 250


    Jackson, Henry M., 37, 210, 220, 221-22
    JATO, 78, 80, 242
    JCAE, 112, 242

  • H-bomb views by, 37, 121
  • nuclear-airplane support by, 61, 63-67 69, 71, 235
  • views on space programs by, 121-22, 236
    Jet-assisted takeoff, see JATO
    Jet propulsion, 60
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, see JPL
    Johnson, Gerald, 39
    Johnson, Lyndon B., 168
  • ABM decisions by, 194, 195
  • Senate committee chaired by. 119-21, 134
    Johnson, Roy W., 20, 117, 143
    Johnson Committee, 119-21, 134
    Joint Chiefs of Staff, 23, 127, 134, 194
    Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, see JCAE
    JPL, 137, 138, 242
    Juno I, 135, 136, 137
    Jupiter missile, 134, 235
  • C version of, 105, 110-11 134-36
  • decision to terminate, 140-41
  • deployment of, 101
  • purpose of, 84
  • rocket engines powering, 81
  • Thor compared with, 98-100, 102-3
    K-25, 16, 30, 242
    Kalitinsky, Andrew, 68
    Keeny, Spurgeon, 149
    Keirn, General Donald, 64, 65, 66-67, 70, 72
    Kennedy, John F., 155, 156
  • estimate of nuclear stockpile by, 41
  • first defense program outlines of, 57
    Kill probability, 173, 174, 199
  • accuracy versus, 175
  • MIRV, 174, 181
    Killian, James R., Ir., 10, 19, 22. 66, 113, 115-16, 119, 148
    Kistiakowsky, Dr. George B., 19, 22, 55, 85, 114, 199, 139, 141, 148
    Korean War, 16, 34, 35, 36, 82-83, 108
    Laird, Melvin, 156, 196, 200, 206
    Lapp, Ralph, 33
    Latter, Richard, 198
    Launch on warning, 184-85, 232
    Lawrence, Ernest O., 15, 17, 30, 39
    Lawrence Radiation Laboratory/Livermore, 17, 18, 19, 22, 39,86,93,100,122
    Legacy of Hiroshima, The (Teller), 32, 39
    LeMay, General Curtis E., 53, 65
    Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 44, 45
    Lindbergh, Charles A., 18, 86
    Livermore Laboratory, see Lawrence Radiation Laboratory/ Livermore
    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 16, 30, 32, 86, 93
    Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, 57
    LOX (liquid oxygen), 150
    MacDonald, Gordon, 198

    INDEX 251


    Mace missile, 80
    Manhattan Project, 28, 36

  • role in nuclear-arms race by, 29-32
    Manned Orbiting Laboratory, see MOL
    Martinelli, Ernest, 39
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 19, 54,62,86
    Matador missile, 80
    McCarthy, Joseph, 142
    McCloy, John J., 21,22
    McCormack, General James, 86
    McElroy, Neil H., 20,115,116, 118, 126, 139, 155, 214
    McMahon, Brien, 37,221
    McMillan, William, 198
    McNamara, Robert S., 57, 58, 100,119,180, 196
  • ABM and, 194-95
    Medaris, General John Bruce, 99, 101,105,138,139,141, 142
    Medaris-Von Braun group, 134, 136
    Meitner, Lise, 29
    Mercury capsule, 132,151
    Mike Event, 36, 40
    Military-industrial complex, 9, 87
    Military targets, 42-43,223-24
    Millikan, Clark B., 18-19
    Mills, Mark, 39
    Minuteman missile, 45,102,201, 208
  • deployment of, 97, 152-53
  • kill probability of, 175
  • protection of, 183- 86, 197, 200, 203-4, 206, 210
  • purpose of, 84
  • range of, 98,160-61
  • test flight of, 57 111
  • version of, 153, 154
  • warhead of, 166, 181
    MIRV, 156, 184, 187, 207, 231, 232, 242
  • comparison of Soviet and U.S., 180-83,199
  • effect on strategic situation by, 176-78, 179, 225-27
  • kill probability of, 175, 181
  • number of warheads, 45-47, 153, 154
  • Safeguard system and, 21 1
    Missile gap, 11, 91,108,123, 125-46, 147
  • space programs stimulated by, 136 42, 145
  • weapons system stimulated by, 128-32, 134, 143
    Missile-site radar, see MSR
    Missiles accuracy of, 166-67, 173, 174-5
  • ballistic, 53, 75, 83,84, 86, 95, 126,127, 188, 231
  • cruise or air-breathing, 75, 80-81,188
  • development programs for, 83-1 02
  • land-based, 13, 45
  • launching of, 149-52, 154
  • launch on warning of, 184-87, 232
  • long-range, 40, 53, 57, 99, 126, 132
  • manned, 54, 120
  • multiple warheads for, 45, 46
  • reliability of, l 66 67, l 73-74
  • sea-based, 45
  • uses of, 75, 76
  • See also ICBM; IRBM; and specific names of missiles
    MOL, 132, 156, 235, 242
    Morse, Richard S., 141, 148
    Moscow, Russia, 43, 46, 47

    INDEX 252


    MRV, 153, 156, 194, 242
    MSR, 202, 242
    Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, see MIRV
    Multiple reentry vehicles, see MRV
    NACA, 52, 112, 242

  • responsibilities of, 19
  • transformation to NASA of, 19, 115, 120, 136
    Nagasaki, Japan, 16, 27-28, 30, 42
    NASA, 127, 242
  • creation of, 144, 145
  • responsibilities of. l 9, 21 132, 136, 139
  • transferring of JPL to, 137, 138
  • transformation of NACA to, 19, 115, 120, 136
    National Academy of Sciences, 104
    National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, see NACA
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, see NASA
    National security, 21
  • decline in, 228-30, 233
  • military means and, 23, 24
    National Security Council, 64
    National Space Council, 116
    Navaho missile, 81, 83, 92, 235
    Navy, U.S., 85, 133, 138, 236
  • joint committee with Army, 100, 101
  • missile and rocket programs of, 82, 100
  • nuclear-airplane involvement by, 61
  • satellite-launching responsibilities of, 104
    NEPA, 61, 62, 243
    Nike-Ajax missile, 188, 193
    Nike-Hercules missile, 188, 190, 193
    Nike-X, 194, 206
    Nike-Zeus missile, 134, 153, 193 206
  • research and development of, 155, 176
  • Soviet ABM compared with, 201
  • testing of, 139-40
    Nitze, Paul, 198
    Nixon, Richard M., 10, 23, 56, 140, 149, 156, 195, 197
    NORAD, 189, 243
    North American Air Defense Command, see NORAD
    North American Aviation, 52, 53, 54, 56, 59, 81
  • Rocketdyne Division of, 81, 83, 93
    Nuclear airplane, 60-74
  • development of, 63-69
  • engine power for, 60 61
  • funding for, 61, 69
  • research for, 61-63
  • shielding problems of, 62-63, 68
    Nuclear-arms race, see Arms race
    Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft, see NEPA
    Nuclear fission, discovery of process, 29
    Nuclear-powered missile-launching submarine, see SSBN
    Nuclear war authority over starting, 228, 231-33 types of control against, 233

    INDEX 253


    Nuclear weapons, 27-48

  • chemical bomb, compared with, 33-34
  • early testing of, 32
  • effect of Korean War and Russian A-bomb tests on, 34-35, 36
  • explosive yield of, 1950-70, 47-48
  • first use of, 27-28
  • Manhattan project and, 29-32
  • military targets of, 42-43
  • 1950 stockpile of, 33-34
  • 1960 stockpile of, 41-42, 43
  • overkill and, 42, 46, 48, 165, 230
  • qualitative improvements in, 44-45
  • radioactive fallout from, 43-44, 46
  • struggle for and against development of, 36-39
  • underground testing of, 44, 45
  • "virtual attrition," 46-47
  • See also A-bombs; H-bombs
    Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 15, 16, 30
    OBS (orbital bombardment system), 143
    Operation Castle, 40
    Operation Crossroads, 32
    Operation Greenhouse, 17
    Operation Ivy, 40
    Operation Paper Clip, 77, 129
    Operation Sandstone, 32
    Oppenheimer, Frank, 15
    Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 15, 30, 121, 205
  • H-bomb developent and, 36-39
    Overkill, 46, 48, 165, 230
  • types of, 42
    Packard, David, 196, 200
    Panofsky, W. K. H., 198, 202, 222
    PAR, 202, 243
    Pastore, John O., 41
    Perimeter acquisition radar, see PAR
    Pickering, William, 137
    Plutonium, 16, 30, 32
  • production of, 41
    Polaris missile, 120, 133, 169, 202, 226
  • A-1 version, 153, 154, 241
  • A-2 version, 153, 154, 241
  • A-3 version, 153, 154, 177, 241
  • ABM and, 209, 211
  • capabilities of, 100-101
  • delay of, 90, 156
  • first deployment of, 101, 161
  • program acceleration of, 134
  • purpose of, 84
  • range of, 100, 161
  • Skybolt compared with, 129
    Poseidon missile, 47, 154, 156, 175, 181, 182, 226
    Power, General Thomas S., 152
    Pratt and Whitney Corporation, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 80
    President's Science Advisory Committee, see PSAC
    Price, Melvin, 66, 69, 70
    Project Defender, 118
    Propulsion
  • ion and plasma, 128
  • thermonuclear, 128
    PSAC. 119, 148, 149, 243
  • efforts toward arms control by, 19-20
  • establishment of, 113, 144
  • functions of, 114-I 6
    Pugwash Conference, Sixth, 41

    INDEX 254


    Quarles, Donald, 18, 65, 66, 67,

  • 84, 86, 115, 116, 137
    Rabi, I. I., 114
    Raborn, Admiral William F., 100, 101
    Ramo, Simon, 86, 87
    Ramo- Wooldridge Corporation, 86, 87, 88, 92, 93
    Rathjens, George W., 197-98, 203, 204
    Reaction Motors, Inc., 78
    Redstone missile, 83, 105
    Regulus I and II missiles, 82
    Resor, Stanley, 196
    Rickover, Admiral Hyman G., 163
    Rigel missile, 82
    Rockets, 75- 104, 109, 110
  • JATO, 78, 80, 242
  • liquid-propellant, 92, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 150, 151
  • long-range, 20, 83, 96
  • nuclear, 18
  • solid-propellant, 97, 98, 100, 151, 154
  • surface-to- surface, 82
  • types of motors for, 78-79
  • See also ICBM; IRBM; and specific names of rockets
    Roosevelt, Franklin D., 29, 31
    Rostow' Walt W., 149
    Rubel, John, 119, 148
    Ruina, Jack, 119, 140, 148, 197
    Russell, Richard B., 70
    Russia, see U.S.S.R.


    SAC, 53, 65, 120, 127, 152, 190, 191, 233, 243
    Safeguard system, 23, 183, 196, 197, 202, 213-15, 219, 226
    SAGE, 155, 189, 206, 243
    SAINT,131, 243
    SAM, 191, 193, 206, 243
    Sandria [sic; Sandia] Corporation, 84
    Satellite booster system, 110-111
    Satellite interception, see SAINT
    Satellites, 104-S, 137, 1 S 1, 157, 162

  • cost of launching, 162-4
  • military, 127, 139
    Saturn I, 136, 137, 139
    Schmickrath, B. A., 68
    Schriever, Brigadier General Bernard A., 18, 86, 87, 88, 118, 151
    Science Advisory Committee, 10, 113
    Scientists, 11, 12
  • H-bomb development and, 36-37
    Scoville, Herbert, 115
    Sea- (or submarine)-launched ballistic missile, see SLBM
    Seaborg, Glenn T., 22, 222
    Seitz, Frederick, 198
    Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, see SAGE
    Senate Armed Services Committee, 112, 146, 156, 183, 202
    Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 21, 196
    Sentinel system, 195-96, 202
    Shelters, fallout and blast, 223-25
    Shoults, D., 68
    Shulman, Marshall, 198
    Shute, Nevil, 44
    Silos, 149-50
  • hardening of, 183
    Sino-Soviet bloc, 16, 35, 48
    Skybolt missile, 51, 123, 129, 130, 155, 235, 236

    INDEX 255


    SLBM, 84, 154, 243
    SLV, 162, 243
    Smith, Captain Levering, 101
    SNAP, 121
    Snark missile, 80, 81, 235
    Space launch vehicle, See SLV
    Space race, 108, 109, 110
    Space Technology Laboratory, 138
    Spartan interceptor, 202, 204
    Special Assistant to the President for
    Science and Technology establishment of, 113, 144

  • past and current, 194, 197
    Sprint interceptor, 202, 204
    Sputnik
  • Defense Department's reaction to, 112, 115, 116, 118, 126
  • launching of, 19, 52, 106
  • stimulus to U.S. programs by, 66, 113-24, 127, 130, 133-34, 144-46, 238
  • weight of I and 11, 108
    SS-9, 166, 175, 199, 200, 204, 243
    SS-11, 175, 183, 201, 243
    SSBN, 154, 243
    Stalin, Joseph, 16, 35, 107, 108
    "Standoff'' weapons, 50-51
    Starbird, Alfred D., 196
    Stassen, Harold, 18
    Strassmann, Fritz, 29
    Strategic Air Command, see SAC
    Strategic Stability, unbalancing of, 173-80
    Strauss, Lewis L. 37,38,39
    Street, Kenneth, 39
    Surface-to-air missiles, see SAM
    Symington, Stewart, 121
    Szilard, Leo, 29,238


    Technical Capabilities Panel, 113
    Teller, Edward, 29, 32, 92, 122, 159, 198

  • desire to develope [sic] H-bomb by, 16-17, 36, 37, 39, 40
    TFX, 58, 100, 156, 243
    Thor missile, 97, 102, 236
  • Jupiter compared with, 98-100, 102-3
  • performance goats of, 94
  • purpose of, 84, 104
  • rocket engine powering, 8 I
    Thor-Agena satellite launcher, 126, 135, 162
    Titan missile, 45, 54, 166,187, 201
  • Atlas compared with, 102
  • design of, 95-96
  • development of, 94, 150-52
  • launching of capsules by, 132, 151
  • purpose of, 84
  • replacement of Atlas by, 96-97
  • warhead of, 47
    TNT, 27, 33
    Transit satellite, 134
    Truman, Harry S, 38, 113
    Twining, General Nathan F., 139, 142
    U-2, 21, 107, 243
    U 235, 27, 30, 32, 243
    Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, see U.S.S.R.
    Urey, Harold C., 30
    U.S.S.R., 12, 18
  • ABM of, 46, 176,179-80, 201
  • A-bomb testing by, 12, 16, 32, 34, 36
  • defense system, 190, 191
  • H-bomb testing by, 40-41

    INDEX 256


    U.S.S.R., continued

  • ICBM's of, 106, 109-11, 127, 147, 231
  • 1970 strategic situation of, 165-68
  • role in arms race by, 228-30
  • U.S. missile and space programs compared, 108-12
  • U.S. reaction to scientific developments in, 69-74, 83, 106-8, 112-13


    V-1 and V-2 missiles, 76-77, 78, 79, 89, 99, 181
    Vanguard program, 20, 104, 108, 110, 133, 134
    Vietnam War, 91, 146, 206, 220
    Vinson, Carl, 55, 57
    "Virtual attrition," 46-47
    Von Braun, Wernher, 20, 77, 99, 101, 102, 105, 136, 137, 142
    Von Neumann, John, 18, 19, 85, 92
    Von Neumann Committee, 18, 85, 86, 87, 88, 92, 114, 238


    Wakelin, Dr. James H., Jr., 147
    Warhead

  • cluster, 153
  • thermonuclear, 129
    WDD, 86, 88, 243
    Weapons
  • development and deployment of strategic, 149, 225-27
  • limiting factors against new systems of. 160-65
  • See also Nuclear weapons
    Weisner, Jerome B., 19, 22, 57, 165, 194, 197, 206
  • ANP views of, 69
  • PSAC chairmanship of, 119, 48-49
  • Von Neumann Committee involvement by, 85, 114
    Weisskopf, Victor, 15
    Western Development Division, see WDD
    Wheeler, John A., 29
    Whiting, Allen, 198
    Wigner, Eugene, 29, 30, 46, 47
    Wilcox, Howard. 119
    Wilson, Charles E., 64, 101, 126, 134
    Wohlstetter, Albert, 174, 183, 198
    Wooldridge, Dean, 86, 87
    World War II, 49, 60, 190, 228, 237
  • atomic bombs and, 28
  • start of, 15
  • strategic missiles fired during, 76-77
  • tons of explosives used in, 33
  • weapons development since, 49-50
    WS-110, 52, 53


    X-10, 30, 243


    Y-12, 243

  • manufacturing plant of, 15, 30


    Zablocki, Clement I., 196


    NUCLEAR POLICY STUDIES: GRAPHICS & TEXTS: LINKS:
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    "Comprehensive Test Ban" [28 February 1996] and a 21 June 1996 addendum on China's CTB policy. The Acheson-Lilienthal Report [16 March 1946]: Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy. Re CTB

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